Round the end of the 20th century, US scientist Ken Shoulders created a very original electronic device, on which he conducted experiments by sending ultra-short high-voltage impulses. He observed the creation of uncommon localized charges (spherical form and hollow, with a diameter typically between 5 and 15 μm), made of an accumulation of 108 - 1011 electrons. Ken Shoulders called these charge accumulations « Electrum Validum » (« strong electron »), while their contemporary name is « Charge clusters » (or “Condensed Plasmoids”). He studied their behavior, lifetime, interactions with various metals, etc.
To our opinion, Ken Shoulders made a great discovery in the field of high-voltage electrophysics, while several other authors developed theories and wrote various publications about these exotic objects.
This section is providing a selection of publications by Ken Shoulders, by our Chief scientific advisor Vladimir Sapogin, and some other publications, describing the Charges Clusters, so our readers can better understand those physical objects, which are deeply involved in FREEL TECH’s innovative energy storage technology.
Kenneth Radford SHOULDERS
Kenneth Radford Shoulders (March 7, 1927 – June 7, 2013) was a experimental physicist.
He is known for various work related to the field of energy and has also been credited as an early pioneer of electron beam lithography, which has become a key mask-making technology for modern microelectronics.
He has additionally been attributed the title, ‘Father of Vacuum of Microelectronics’ and been known as a founder of microelectronic field emission devices.
He graduated from North Dallas High School in 1944, then worked at Maganavox Company, Texas Instruments Inc., and Collins Radio Company.
In 1955 – 1958, he worked as Research Staff Member at the MIT.
He joined the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) in Menlo, CA in 1958 as Senior Research Engineer.
In 1968, Ken Shoulders incepted Vertitek Inc., with the intention of building experimental aircraft ; during 20 years, he designed several aircraft and aircraft components, but never managed to successfully commercialize products.
K. Shoulders has conducted extensive research on the charge clusters (EV or EVO) phenomena between the 1980s and 2010s. He was awarded a number of patents over the course of his career.
We recommend also to read the very good biographical article published in Autumn 2016 in the Journal “Distilllations”.
Vladimir Georgievich SAPOGIN
Vladimir G. SAPOGIN (born in 1945 is PhD in Physics and Mathematics, as well as Professor at the Chair of Physics of the Taganrog Technological Institute (depends on the Southern Federal University of the Russian Federation).
He is also Professor at the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, worked several years on the ball lighting phenomenon (another form of “charge cluster”) and knows also well Ken Shoulders’ works.
Vladimir Sapogin is the Scientific Senior Fellow of FREEL TECH’s team and has built various physical models with respect to the electron emission of cathodes in various conditions, and for the calculation of the storage potential of some of the Vacuum Capacitor’s prototypes developed by our team.